N1‑Headache™ in collaboration with patients, clinicians and patient associations has generated findings that deepen understanding of migraine.
Some interesting discoveries from our data analyses:
Identifying ‘protectors’ may be a useful addition to the management of migraine, potentially of equal importance to identifying triggers.
N1‑Headache™ data shows for the first time, potential ‘protectors,’ the spectrum of factors associated with reduced incidence of migraine attacks.
N1‑Headache™ could be used to alert patients and their clinicians about potential overuse of acute medications which can lead to medication overuse headache (MOH).
A 2017 N1‑Headache™ study on medication overuse patterns determined that about 20 percent of migraine patients were overusing acute headache medications in the UK, compared to almost 30 percent of migraine patients in the US.
It is not ununusual for people with migraine to suspect risk factors not associated with their attacks.
A study of 390 people who used N1‑Headache™ for 90 days showed that only 16% of suspected triggers were shown to be statistically associated with attack occurrence.
To validate our novel statistical approach, N1‑Headache™ applied a N=1 statistical algorithm to a 326 migraine patient database from the benchmark PAMINA study.
The results show an unexpectedly high degree of variability in individual risk profiles: 85% of the study patients had unique trigger profiles and no one had the aggregate average profile.
It is widely believed that chocolate can trigger migraine attacks, but our data suggests its true impact may be far less than suspected.
Chocolate increased the risk of migraine attacks in less than 2% of N1‑Headache™ users.
Alcohol and tyramine are widely suspected as migraine triggers - but are they really?
In these prospective studies neither alcohol nor tyramine was found to be commonly associated with migraine attacks.
In a group of 254 users, N1‑Headache™ identified a number of “protectors,” which are commonly thought to be “triggers.”
Surprisingly, the following factors were associated with decreasing the risk of migraine attack in the specified number of users: alcohol (15); travel (14); stress (12); bright lights (8); odors (6); and neck pain (5).
Previous studies at the population level define the risk of migraine increasing 2 days before until 3 days after the onset of menstruation.
By contrast, N1‑Headache™’s collection of daily data suggests that a ‘one size fits all’ window for analysis of the impact of menstruation on migraine is likely not valid for many individuals.
Determining a statistical association between stress and migraine attacks in individuals with chronic migraine is often not possible because attacks are not distinct.
Using an alternative approach, N1‑Headache™ detected an association between stress and “high” pain days (i.e., headache pain intensity) in more than one-quarter of individuals with chronic migraine.
In some individuals with migraine, excessive yawning is a sensitive predictor of an attack that may provide an opportunity for early intervention.
Out of 285 individuals with migraine registered to use N1‑Headache™ and tracking for 90 days or more, excessive yawning was associated with increased risk of migraine attack in 72 (25.3%), with decreased risk in 4 (1.4%).
We are constantly on the lookout for people interested in joining our studies. If you would like to be part of them, or be involved as a healthcare professional, please write to us to and we will get in touch with you.